This study aims to understand what influences the adoption and implementation of an innovative approach to pediatric primary care by medical professionals and staff providing that care. The innovation concerns addressing common psychosocial problems such as parental depression and substance abuse. Different approaches to training medical professionals will be examined as well as the use of software versus traditional 'paper and pencil' to facilitate implementation.



Eligible Ages
Over 18 Years
Eligible Genders
Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Inclusion Criteria

  • Practice not already implementing the SEEK model.
  • The practice provides primary care to children.
  • The practice agrees to participate in the study.
  • PCPs, office staff and parents of children 0-5 years agree to participate.
  • Able to comprehend basic English
  • Access to a computer to complete online surveys.

Exclusion Criteria

  • None

Study Design

Study Type
Intervention Model
Parallel Assignment
Primary Purpose
Single (Participant)

Arm Groups

ArmDescriptionAssigned Intervention
Active Comparator
Independent online training (IND)
IND refers to practitioners Independently doing the online training.
  • Other: Independent online training (IND)
    IND refers to practitioners Independently doing the online training.
Maintenance of Certification (MOC)
MOC involves a guided learning experience, approved by the American Board of Pediatrics and the American Board of Family Medicine for Maintenance of Certification credits. This involves a Quality Improvement project with 3 waves of data collection to assess and improve implementation while participating in 4 monthly webinars led by Dr. Dubowitz.
  • Behavioral: Experimental: Maintenance of Certification (MOC)
    MOC training will lead to more positive attitudes, comfort level and competence in addressing risk factors for Child Maltreatment.

Recruiting Locations

University of Maryland, Baltimore
Baltimore, Maryland 21201
Howard Dubowitz, MD, MS

More Details

University of Maryland, Baltimore

Study Contact

Howard Dubowitz, MD,MS,FAAP

Detailed Description

The proposed study, based on SEEK I and II findings is designed to study the effectiveness of technology driven training strategies to facilitate use of SEEK in helping prevent child maltreatment (CM) and its adoption and implementation in pediatric and family medicine settings. The implementation approach is anchored in four stages of the EPIS conceptual model: Exploration, adoption/Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment. The strong evidence for SEEK's effectiveness has been underscored by its listing on the websites of the CDC, AHRQ, AAP, and by the California Clearinghouse for Evidence-Based Interventions in Child Welfare. Early adopters are increasingly implementing SEEK in primary care settings, including in Sweden. Four of the 5 healthcare systems in this proposal have implemented SEEK in some of their practices. However, practices within these systems operate independently of one another, and there should not be contamination among them. Each practice has its own lead physician, primary care providers (PCPs) and administrative staff and several have integrated behavioral health.

Design. The investigator selected a rigorous Hybrid Type III design which is an approach to examine implementation outcomes while also examining SEEK's effectiveness in preventing CM, measured by electron health record (EHR) indicators. Type III designs are facilitated by good EHR systems due to the low cost of data routinely gathered for clinical, services, and financial purposes. Five healthcare systems have committed to participating in the project, without committing individual practices and primary care providers (PCPs). Professionals, office staff and parents are nested within practices which are nested within the 5 participating healthcare systems. Practices will choose whether to participate, as will medical professionals within those practices. Participating practices will be randomized to one of the two training strategies for PCPs - Independent online training vs. a Maintenance of Certification (MOC) activity approved by the Boards of Pediatrics and of Family Physicians. Practices will be able to select the facilitation strategy (SEEKonline software or Traditional 'paper and pencil'). Participating professionals and staff within practices will need to adhere to the approach adopted by the practice. The design accounts for heterogeneity in geography, size of healthcare systems, type of primary care (pediatric and family medicine), and presence of integrated behavioral health. A small random sample of parents will be recruited from each practice.

For Aim 1, practices and PCPs will be randomized to one of the two training approaches. Using baseline and follow-up surveys, the investigators will assess the impact of each approach on PCPs' attitudes, knowledge, sense of competence, level of comfort and practice behavior with regard to addressing the targeted problems (e.g., parental depression).

Aim 2 focuses on the implementation of the SEEK model in pediatric and family medicine primary care practices. Practices will have the option of implementing the model using the SEEKonline software or the "traditional" paper and pencil approach. The evaluation involves measuring aspects of implementation such rates of adoption, fidelity to the model, and sustainment beyond the training. In addition, qualitative interviews will provide data regarding what facilitates or impedes optimal implementation.

For Aim 3, The investigators will assess the impact of the interventions on rates of child maltreatment (CM) based on ICD 10 diagnoses in EHRs. The investigators will include a cost-effectiveness analysis by estimating the costs associated with the different approaches to implementing SEEK.


Study information shown on this site is derived from ClinicalTrials.gov (a public registry operated by the National Institutes of Health). The listing of studies provided is not certain to be all studies for which you might be eligible. Furthermore, study eligibility requirements can be difficult to understand and may change over time, so it is wise to speak with your medical care provider and individual research study teams when making decisions related to participation.