Purpose

This is an open-label, non-randomized study. The purpose of this study is to better understand how vaccines against typhoid fever and cholera affect the normal immune system and bacteria in the intestine. Patients having standard-of-care endoscopies (colonoscopy and/or esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)) will be divided into 3 groups: Group 1: Vivotif typhoid vaccination and/or Vaxchora cholera vaccination then endoscopy Group 2: Endoscopy, then Vivotif typhoid vaccination and/or Vaxchora cholera vaccination, then follow-up endoscopy Group 3: Endoscopy without vaccination. Both vaccines used in this study are licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for travelers to developing countries. Volunteers will be asked to donate tissue, blood, saliva and stool samples for studying how the body responds to the typhoid and/or cholera vaccine.

Condition

Eligibility

Eligible Ages
Over 18 Years
Eligible Genders
All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers
Yes

Inclusion Criteria

  • 1. Age 18 years and older
  • 2. Already scheduled to undergo an EGD or colonoscopy for screening, surveillance, or a medically-indicated work-up at the University of Maryland Medical Center (main campus or Midtown)
  • 3. Able to provide written informed consent prior to initiation of any study procedures
  • 4. Healthy, as defined by considered fit to undergo outpatient elective EGD/colonoscopy by the evaluating health care provider

Exclusion Criteria

  • 1. Pregnancy or nursing mother
  • 2. Known coagulopathy or bleeding disorder preventing mucosal biopsy
  • 3. History of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
  • 4. For Subjects undergoing lower endoscopy (colonoscopy) only: Surgical removal of the ileocecal valve or any part of the small or large intestine (non-complicated appendectomy will be considered eligible)
  • 5. Allergic reaction to oral typhoid or cholera vaccine in the past
  • 6. Immunosuppression from illness or treatment, including
  • immune-deficiency disorders such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  • leukemia, lymphoma, or cancers (localized non-melanoma skin cancers which are deemed inactive should be considered eligible)
  • 7. Receipt of any other vaccine two weeks prior to receipt of Ty21a or CVD 103-HgR
  • 8. Positive urine pregnancy test (HCG) prior to colonoscopy or vaccination

Study Design

Phase
Phase 4
Study Type
Interventional
Allocation
Non-Randomized
Intervention Model
Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description
Volunteers who choose to take part in this study will receive the licensed FDA approved Oral Typhoid Vaccine (Vivotif) and/or the licensed FDA approved Oral Cholera Vaccine (Vaxchora). Volunteers also have the possibility of being a control participant who will not be vaccinated.
Primary Purpose
Basic Science
Masking
None (Open Label)

Arm Groups

ArmDescriptionAssigned Intervention
Experimental
Vaccination, Endoscopy
Individuals receive immunization with Vivotif typhoid vaccine and/or Vaxchora cholera vaccine prior to routine endoscopic examination. During endoscopy, small bowel biopsies will be obtained to examine immune responses and microbiota at the mucosal level; brushings might also be obtained.
  • Drug: Vivotif Typhoid Oral Vaccine
    The 4 doses (1 capsule each) will be administered on alternate days, e.g., days 0, 2, 4, and 7 (± 1 day) under the supervision of the study coordinator(s).
    Other names:
    • Ty21a Typhoid Oral Vaccine
  • Drug: Vaxchora
    One dose. Approximately 100 mL of cool or room temperature purified bottled water is placed into a clean disposable cup. The contents of the buffer sachet are added to the water and stirred. Then the contents of the active (lyophilized vaccine) sachet are added to the water and stirred for approximately 30 seconds. The reconstituted mixture should be completely ingested within 15 minutes.
    Other names:
    • CVD 103-HgR
Experimental
Endoscopy, Vaccination, Endoscopy
Individuals receive immunization with Vivotif typhoid vaccine and/or Vaxchora cholera vaccine after initial endoscopic exam and specimen collection and prior to a routine follow up endoscopic examination during which additional specimens will be collected.
  • Drug: Vivotif Typhoid Oral Vaccine
    The 4 doses (1 capsule each) will be administered on alternate days, e.g., days 0, 2, 4, and 7 (± 1 day) under the supervision of the study coordinator(s).
    Other names:
    • Ty21a Typhoid Oral Vaccine
  • Drug: Vaxchora
    One dose. Approximately 100 mL of cool or room temperature purified bottled water is placed into a clean disposable cup. The contents of the buffer sachet are added to the water and stirred. Then the contents of the active (lyophilized vaccine) sachet are added to the water and stirred for approximately 30 seconds. The reconstituted mixture should be completely ingested within 15 minutes.
    Other names:
    • CVD 103-HgR
No Intervention
Endoscopy Without Vaccination
Individuals do not receive immunization but consent to collection of specimens during endoscopy. The specimens to be collected in all three groups include stool, saliva, and small bowel biopsies (terminal ileum if colonoscopy performed, duodenum if EGD performed).

Recruiting Locations

University of Maryland, Baltimore, Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health
Baltimore, Maryland 21201
Contact:
Robin Barnes, CRNP

More Details

NCT ID
NCT03705585
Status
Recruiting
Sponsor
University of Maryland, College Park

Study Contact

Robin Barnes, CRNP
410-706-6156
rbarnes@som.umaryland.edu

Notice

Study information shown on this site is derived from ClinicalTrials.gov (a public registry operated by the National Institutes of Health). The listing of studies provided is not certain to be all studies for which you might be eligible. Furthermore, study eligibility requirements can be difficult to understand and may change over time, so it is wise to speak with your medical care provider and individual research study teams when making decisions related to participation.